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Posted on by Scott Delahunt

Before diving into the analysis, a note about nice round number in the title.  Two hundred reviews.  I never expected to get this far.  The number doesn’t include all the non-review essays, including the History of Adaptations.  Thank you all for reading and thanks to Steven Savage, who not only encouraged me to write about adaptations but also supplied web space, and to Paul Brian McCoy, of Psycho Drive-In for picking up the series and providing the visuals you see each week.

Television the past few seasons is taking the lead from the silver screen, with more adaptations appearing.  Both DC and Marvel are well represented withy multiple series based on their titles.  But comic books aren’t the only source being used.  MacGuyver brings back the classic Richard Dean Anderson series, updated for today.  Likewise, the Lethal Weapon TV series updates the original movies from the the late 80s to now.

The original Lethal Weapon, released in 1987, starred Mel Gibson as Martin Riggs and Danny Glover as Roger Murtaugh, and was a buddy cop action/comedy/thriller.  Murtaugh is a family man, just turning fifty, counting the days until retirement.  Riggs is a new transfer from Dover, suicidal since the death of his wife in a car collision.  Being Christmas, Riggs’ depression has become far more severe, with his only reason to live being the job.  The staff psychiatrist wants Riggs off the force as a danger, but the Captain believes he’s bucking for a disability pension.  Riggs and Murtaugh get paired up as partners, then get assigned to a case that started as an apparent suicide.  The victim appeared to get high and fell off a building, but the autopsy shows that the drugs were laced with drain cleaner.

As the investigation continues, Murtaugh realizes the truth about Riggs; he is suicidal, taking risks that could get him killed.  Murtaugh invites Riggs to meet his family,  who adopt him.  As much as Riggs is suicidal, he is a family man, just one who lost his family.  Seeing the Murtaughs at home and having them welcome him helps him, a little, enough for him to realize that there’s something else to live for.

The victim’s killer is part of a former CIA black operation from Viet Nam.  A long shot lead that figiratively and literally explodes in their faces leads Riggs and Murtaugh to the ring.  With the two detectives getting closer, the ring, led by  former general McAllister, played by Mitchell Ryan, sends his people, including Joshua, played by Gary Busey, out to deal with them, kidnapping Murtaugh’s daughter Rianne, played by Traci Wolfe.  McAllister underestimates just how crazy Riggs is, though, leading to the ring’s downfall.

The core of the film came from the strength of Shane Black’s writing, Richard Donner’s direction, and the chemistry between Gibson and Glover as Riggs and Murtaugh.  As a pair of buddy cops, it takes them time to get to be buddies, as both have issues that they need to work through.  Once they get to that point, they trust each other, though Murtaugh isn’t always sure of Riggs’ plans.

The success of Lethal Weapon meant sequels were going to happen.  In 1989, Lethal Weapon 2 brought back Riggs and Murtaugh, adding in Joe Pesci as Leo Getz, a creative accountant and middleman under witness protection while waiting to testify.  Guarding Leo means pulling Riggs and Murtaugh off their main case, an investigation into a drug ring headed by a South African* diplomat that leads to Riggs discovering that the accident that killed his wife wasn’t an accident.  Lethal Weapon 3, released in 1992, brings back the trio and adds Rene Russo as Lorna Cole, an Internal Affairs investigator working a different side of a case involving the funneling of submachine guns and machine pistols with armour piercing bullets from police storage to the streets through a dirty ex-cop.  Lethal Weapon 4, released in 1998, brings back everyone, with Riggs and Murtaugh promoted to Captain, skipping Lieutenant, because the LAPD’s insurance company won’t insure the force if the pair are still working the streets while a Chinese human trafficking ring, overseen by Jet Li as Wah Sing Ku.  Throughout the series, the relationship between Riggs and Murtaugh grows, going from assigned partners to true friends.

The movie series was popular, with Lethal Weapon 4 showing the only dip in performance at the box office.  Naturally, something popular will get remade.  In the case of Lethal Weapon, it was remade as a FOX TV series starting in the 2017-2017 season.  Television brings a number of new restrictions.  Unlike movies, where ratings exist to help audiences decide what level of sex and violence they are comfortable with, television can’t go to such extremes.  Each of the Lethal Weapon films were R-rated, mostly due to a level of violence that prime time television isn’t allowed to air.  Adding to the ratings issue, television has a different timing compared to film.  While a television episode may run forty-three minutes after removing ads, a season may run up to twenty-two episodes, giving the series time to expand ideas over multiple airings that a movie has to get in during its one two-hour show.

With the Lethal Weapon TV series, there are tricks to get around the restrictions on violence.  Imagination works just as well as outright showing the act of violence, possibly more so because the audience is filling in the blanks with its own past viewing experience.  Car chases and explosions aren’t considered as violent as a shoot-out with every bullet hit detailed in a shower of blood.  Even cutting out the blood reduces the impact of the violence.  The other issue, timing, works in favour of the TV series, allowing the audience to see Murtaugh’s relationship with his family more often without it being the focus every episode.  Riggs, his deathwish, and his turn around can also be given more depth, spreading the issues over several episodes.

The critical issue with a Lethal Weapon TV series, though, is the chemistry between the leads.  In the movies, Gibson and Glover played off each other so well, a remake would be impossible.  Yet, in the TV series, the impossible happens each week.  The casting of Clayne Crawford as Riggs and Damon Wayans as Murtaugh brings in the chemistry as the two work well together.  They may not play off each other the same way Gibson and Glover did, but they do bring a new approach.

Another issue is the passage of time.  The pilot episode of the TV series aired almost thirty years after the first movie’s release.  In that time, there have been changes in how police departments operate, especially when it comes to officers like Riggs who are suffering from mental health problems.  The Captain’s attitude in the first movie, that Riggs is bucking for a disability pension, would have him written up by the staff psychiatrist.  Instead, Riggs has regular sessions with the psychiatrist, Dr. Maureen Cahill as played by Jordana Brewster, with her word being what allows him to work.  The plots of the first two movies would need heavy rewrites to be adapted as episodes, should the series chose to use them; the end of US involvement in Viet Nam was over forty years ago and Apartheid in South Africa ended in 1991.

The series changes a few details.  Murtaugh’s wife is now a defense attorney.  Riggs is now from Texas.  Murtaugh isn’t so much hoping for his last years on the force before retirement to be quiet; he now has a pacemaker and is under orders from his doctor and his wife to take things easy.  These changes don’t affect the core of the show; Murtaugh is still a family man who loves his wife and kids while Riggs is a family man who is despondent after losing his wife in a car crash.

The opening scene of the pilot episode demonstrates this clearly.  During a hostage taking after a failed bank robbery, Murtaugh is on scene working to get the situation handled quietly, with the proper people in to talk the robbers into letting everyone go with no one coming to harm.  Riggs takes matters into his own hands, delivering a pizza to the robbers and exchanging himself as a hostage.and freaking out his captors by provoking them into shooting him.  That wasn’t the way the two met in the movie, but it sums up both characters well.  The Lethal Weapon TV series is still, at heart, a buddy cop action/comedy, with one cop wanting to keep things quiet and the other with a deathwish, fighting crime in LA while causing millions in collateral damage.

* In 1989, South Africa was still under Apartheid, a system of government suppressing the black majority by the white minority.  In Lethal Weapon 2, Riggs treated the diplomat as being no better than a Nazi.  The distraction Leo and Murtaugh cause at the South African embassy is well worth seeing.


Posted on by Steven Savage

(This column is posted at www.StevenSavage.com, www.SeventhSanctum.com, and Steve’s Tumblr)

Yes, another update.  I am on a roll!  For now.  We know how that goes.

  • So first, comments are back at Seventh Sanctum.  I had to take them down due to some bizarre issues where they seemed to be messing with some formatting.  Or search results.  Or something.  It got a bit strange.  I think I figured it out but am not entirely sure.  Anyway they’re back!
  • The Way With Worlds Book 2 gets formatted this weekend.  If all goes well, it’ll be enough to do a test print.  I’m hopeful I can get it all together – I’d still like to get it out end of March, but early April is looking more likely.
  • Those Way With Worlds are in the works – book four in fact of six I plan to write.
  • The new generator is still in progress.  I’ve got a bit more on my plate then expected but hope to finish it up before end of March.
  • I also have been enjoying A House Of Many Doors, a literary exploration RPG that you really need to check out.

Also no new illnesses.  Well, on my part, but considering the rain here and all the diseases still flying around I kinda want to hide for awhile!

– Steve


Posted on by Scott Delahunt

Last week, Lost in Translation looked at a fan-made audio drama, including the nature of audio plays.  The post goes into greater detail about the needs of an audio adaptation.  This week, Lost in Translation looks at another fan audio work, Star Trek: Outpost, from Giant Gnome Productions.

Like Starship Excelsior last week, Outpost is a Star Trek fan audio series set after the end of the Dominion War.  However, Outpost is set on Deep Space Three, a neglected space station near the borders of both the First Federation, first seen in “The Corbomite Maneuver”, and the Ferengi Alliance.  The relative calm of the sector compared to those abutting Klingon space, Romulan space, and the ones consumed by the Dominion War meant that Starfleet did what it could to keep the station running without spending too many finite resources.  Commanding the station is Captain Montaigne Buchanan, an efficiency expert who has managed to keep the station going with fewer and fewer resources.  Captain Buchanan is looking forward to his efforts at the station being rewarded with a promotion to Admiral.  However, the transfer of Lt. Commander Greg “Tork” Torkelson from the USS Remington to become as the station’s Executive Officer, throws a few hitches into Buchanan’s approach.  Torkelson, as the Exec, also gains command of the USS Chimera, an Oberth-class starship similar to the USS Grissom from Star Trek III: The Search for Spock.

Deep Space Three has a reputation for being a place where Starfleet personnel whose careers have nosedived go to, a collection of misfits and outcasts.  The Chimera‘s Chief Engineer, Chief Petty Officer Bert Knox, is one such character.  His goal is to keep the Chimera functioning, going so far as to salvage other decommissioned Oberths and to install alien technologies when the proper part isn’t available.  Torkelson’s arrival, though, brings in new ideas on how to make Deep Space Three relevant again.  Tork’s plans include re-opening parts of the station shut down to conserve power and resources, including the station’s mall.  While Torkelson’s choice to run the station – Ferengi brothers Vurk and Tirgil – may not work out as well as he hopes, Deep Space Three is beginning to turn around from its reputation.  Whether it can while Orion pirates, a rogue Klingon warrior, the return of the First Federation, and the general weirdness of the Pinchot Expanse are around is another question.

As mentioned last week, audio works need to create the setting solely through sound.  Redundant, but success and failure hinge on making sure the audience knows what’s around through sound cues.  Outpost succeeds here; the Chimera and Deep Space Three have different sounds, and starship and station both individualize their sets even further.  The bridge of the Chimera has the proper sounds as expected and is different from the engineering section and sick bay.  Likewise, Deep Space Three’s command centre is different from the station’s sick bay and from the mall.  And when power is lost in one episodes, the background sounds disappear.

Like Excelsior, the cast of Outpost is more than compentent, and the two productions share a couple of voice actors, Larry Phelan and Eleiece Krawiec.  Of note, the father-and-son team of Ben Cromey and Doug Cromey are fun to listen to as the Vurk and Tirgil, especially their rallying cry, “We’re gonna die!”  Combined with the writing, the episodes of Outpost are compelling, with characters who have depth and can be empathized with, even when they’re not immediately sympathetic.

One thing the creators of Outpost do is create “minisodes”, or mini-episodes, when at conventions.  They bring in netbooks with USB microphones and get volunteers from the audience to read parts in a script to show how a show is put together.  Overnight, they edit the parts together, add in the sound effects and music, then present the minisode in a panel the next day.  A good example of how the creators get this done is the minisode, “Ferengi Apprentice“, recorded at the Denver Comic Con.  They had some problems with the recoding due to an unshielded cable interfering with a microphone, so the episode was redone, but both versions, the original recorded at the panel and the redone one, are included to show the differences.

Star Trek: Outpost is another fan-made production that takes pains to fit in with the original work.  The effects are correct for the era, and the Chimera‘s mish-mash of parts include sounds from Star Treks of old.  The result is a well-done adaptation that demonstrates how to adapt well.


Posted on by Steven Savage

(This column is posted at www.StevenSavage.com, www.SeventhSanctum.com, and Steve’s Tumblr)

Well this has been awhile.  It’s been  crazy time with illness, changing to a new contract, roommate starting a new job, social events, more illness, and general chaos.  Honestly, I feel like I need to take some time off.

So I just sent out a newsletter update, but let’s cover where I am right now

  • The Way With Worlds Book 2 is in final edits.  If all goes well I format and run a first print next weekend.  If not . . . uh well it doesn’t happen.  I think it’ll be out end of March or early April with no other interruptions.
  • Those Way With Worlds Minibooks are coming out great!  I’m working on the fourth (yes, they’re small and I’ve been doing them for awhile).  I think you’ll enjoy them.
  • There’s a new generator in the works, inspired by my gamecrush Failbetter games. Oh and go back their now project, Sunless Skies!
  • I’m trying to write more than just updates and books, and hoping the lack of illness will make that easier.
  • I and my roommate have become addicted to RWBY.

That’s it for me.  Just letting you know I’m still working away here to make your life geekier, professional, creative, and interesting.  As long as I stop catching colds from other people.

– Steve


Posted on by Steven Savage

Got a bit of bad news – Disqus has altered how comments work, which is including ads.  This required me to tweak assorted settings to get it to work right, and it may be creating other problems including formatting in mobile, load, and reference/search.  So I’ve had to take them down temporarily while I sort this out.  I think they’ll be down one to two weeks while I test solutions and check results – things are pretty busy right now.

Sorry for the inconvenience!

  • Steve


Posted on by Scott Delahunt

Last week’s Lost in Translation featured a discussion about fan adaptations, including a rationale on what works would get analyzed.  This week, a look at a Star Trek fan audio productions.

Radio serials were the forerunner of today’s TV series.  Families would gather around the radio and tune in favourite series.  In the Thirties, ventriloquist Edgar Bergen had his own, live, show that had a large audience.  Orson Welles had Mercury Theatre on the Air, the production that scared the US with War of the Worlds.  The key is to engage the audience’s imagination.  Unlike theatre before, movies concurrent with radio, and television afterwards, radio relies on just one sense, hearing.  The cast and crew have to create an immersive setting while just using audio.  Sound effects become key.  The more real the situation sounds, the more the audience buys in.  Creative use of sound can also create the mood desired.  Welles’ War of the Worlds has a memorable scene where one plaintive voice calls out over radio, “Is there anyone out there?” over and over while the background sounds fade out one by one as the Martian advance, leaving the audience in horror of what’s happening even if they don’t realize why*.

Even with television ubiquitous these days, radio plays still abound.  National Public Radio (NPR) adapted the original Star Wars trilogy into radio serials shortly after each movie was released.  BBC Radio 4 still airs radio dramas on Saturdays.  With the proliferation of portable devices capable of playing .mp3 files, from dedicated .mp3 players to cell phones to tablets, audio plays join music and audio books as something to listen to when the eyes are busy elsewhere.

Fan works, however, exist at the forbearance of the person or company owning the original material.  Fan fiction tends to get overlooked; unless the fanfic is notorious, a blind eye is usually turned.  There is also no barrier to entry when it comes to fan fiction; all that is needed is a means to write, available with all computers or even pen and paper.  Some rights holders encourage fan fiction, with limitations, because of the creativity the endeavor encourages.  With original visual works, like TV series and movies, the closer a fan work is to matching, the closer the work gets to being an infringement.  Full video also has expenses; while the cost of professional-quality recording and editing equipment has dropped, creating sets and costumes still have material costs.  If the fan production charged a fee for viewing, the work becomes a copyright and trademark infringement and corporate attack lawyers will have cease-and-desist orders issued before the first payment can be processed.  There are ways around, including donation in kind, where a fan can help by providing equipment, costumes, or props that are needed.

Audio works don’t have the range of expenses a video would.  Where a video would need props, sets**, and costumes, audio just needs the sound effects of those elements.  The actors don’t even need to be in the same city or even continent, thanks to the Internet and cloud storage.  Each actor just needs a good microphone and a way to record, which even the Windows operating system had since version 3.1.  The audio production, though, needs to use sound to build the sets, so details that get taken for granted by audiences, such as subtle creaks in an old castle or the rumble of a starship’s main drive through the hull, have to be added to help the listener create the image in his or her mind.  One wrong detail, even if it’s just getting a sequence of beeps on a starship’s viewscreen out of order, can break the suspension of disbelief and lose listeners.

Strength of writing is also important.  Getting the audio details correct does go towards satisfying an audience, but if characters aren’t acting as expected or the plot is dull, listeners won’t tune in.  Some original works, including Star Trek, Star Wars, Firefly, and Harry Potter, have settings broad enough that new stories can be created in them without ever interacting with the original characters.  In the case of Star Trek, a fan work could focus on the crew of a different starship, exploring different sectors at any point in the history of the setting.  The precedent already exists with Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Enterprise.  With Harry Potter, the novels already show a glimpse of a larger wizarding world; setting an audio series at a different wizard school isn’t farfetched.  There’s room to play, and that sort of room allows for creative interpretations.  Let’s take a look at a fan-made Star Trek audio series.

Starship Excelsior began its first season in 2007.  Set on board the Sovereign-class starship, the USS Excelsior, hull code NCC-2000C, the series is in its fourth season.  The main plot of the first three seasons picks up to dangling plot threads from Star Trek: The Next Generation and ties them together as the crew of the Excelsior investigates an anomaly that leads into dark revelations that threaten the survival of not just the Federation, but the entire galaxy.  The fourth season starts a new arc as the Excelsior begins an exploration mission, with a mixture of lighter and darker episodes, though some still harken back to the earlier episodes.

The cast of characters consists of the Starfleet officers assigned to the Excelsior.  The ship’s captain, Alcar Dovan, received the command after the previous commander, Rachel Cortez, died in action.  Dovin joined Starfleet to explore, not to engage in military action, but he has excelled at surviving in battles, something he has grown to hate.  His first officer, Alecz Lorhrok, is an unjoined Trill, chosen to be the exec by Dovan.  The by-the-book operations manager, Neeva, is an Orion, dealing with the difficulties of being one of the few of her people in Starfleet.  The chief of security, Asuka Yubari, was severely wounded in the special forces, moved to intelligence, then was assigned to the Excelsior.  The helmsman, Bev Rol, also served in intelligence, where he lost his idealism.  The ship’s surgeon, Doctor Melissa Sharp, wanted to be a researcher, away from patients, but found her career stalled as a result of her beliefs before signing up on the Excelsior.  The characters all have their own motivations, from Dr. Sharp’s opposition to military engagements to Rol’s atonement for past misdeeds.  They clash, they argue, they laugh, they are fully formed, brought to life by actors who could easily get into professional voice work if they so choose.

The writing of the series is tight and takes into account Trek canon.  As mentioned about, the major plot of the first three seasons centred around two dangling plot threads from Star Trek: The Next Generation, one involving the Borg.  The first three seasons are also one continuous story, as opposed to being episodic.  Missing an episode means missing plot and character developments.  The fourth season has more single-story episodes, but still has an arc to it.  Listeners can easily get attached to the characters and worry about their survival and success.  There are times when the writers’ fannish tendencies*** show up; Dovan’s exclamations owe a lot to Battlestar Galactica and Star Wars, with a nod to Terry Pratchett’s Discworld with a colour that Bolian vision can see that humans can’t.

The audio sets are also built well.  The sounds that are expected from a Starfleet vessel are all there, from the rumbling of the engines to the beeps of consoles and PADDs to the alarm klaxons.  Even if someone was just tuning into the middle of an episode, the effects would be enough to tell them where the story was set.  The result is a series that is very much Star Trek, though in the darker realms of the franchise.

Of special note, Starship Excelsior ran a Kickstarter campaign to create an episode for the fiftieth anniversary of /Star Trek/’s first airing.  The campaign was more than successful, letting them rent a proper recording studio and fly their audio engineer in from Toronto.  More than that, the success allowed the series get Nichelle Nichols (Uhura), Walter Koenig (Chekov), Robin Curtis (Saavik, The Search for Spock), Joanne Linville (the Romulan Commander in “The Enterprise Incident”), and Jack Donner (Subcommander Tal, “The Enterprise Incident”) to reprise their original characters in a new story that still ties into the Starship Excelsior storyline.  “Tomorrow’s Excelsior” is a one hour, forty minute story where Uhura and Chekov must save Starfleet, the Federation, the galaxy, and the future while avoiding war with the Romulans, with a solution that fits well with their characters.  The series took care in emphasizing in the Kickstarter campaign that all money raised would be put into the production of the episode, with the main costs being getting the actors they wanted.  The episode is available for free from Starship Excelsior‘s website.

* Creative use of sound continues even today.  Alien, a science fiction horror movie, removed background music, leaving the audience no cues on what was about to happen.
** Even with green screening and CGI available, some physical elements are still needed, if only to give the actors something to play off.
*** To be fair, even professional works will have this sort of thing.  The Serenity from Firefly had a cameo in the Battlestar Galactica reboot, appearing overhead on Caprica.


Posted on by Scott Delahunt

With two exceptions, Lost in Translation has looked at professionally done work.  The first exception, The Four Players, was to show just how far off Super Mario Bros. was from the mark.  The second, Star Wreck: In the Pirkinning, demonstrated an eye to detail needed to maintain a parody of not one but two science fiction series, Star Trek: The Next Generation and Babylon 5.  The reason for analysing the professional work is two-fold.  The main reason is that hte professional work is more available to a general audience.  Movies get released to the silver screen, then is made available on DVD/Blu-Ray, digital streaming, video on demand, and other methods.  TV series get rerun via syndication and released much like movies.

The other reason is that fan work is variable.  Quality runs the gamut from rookies learning how to write and use the equipment to professional-level capabilities that may make the professional work look inadequate.  Sometimes, the fan work can lead to getting a paid position; a number of fan droid designers, inspired by R2-D2 in Star Wars were hired to develop build robots for The Force Awakens.  At the other end, fanfiction has a reputation for being barely comprehensible, whatever the truth of the matter is.

For the most part, the fans are creating because of a love of the original work.  Each fan brings in a different interpretation of the original, seeing different elements despite the shared experiences.  Sometimes the interpretation is brilliant, a new look at the original.  Other times, the interpretation comes out of left field and has almost no connection to the original at all.  it is easy to spot when something is mean-spirited; there’s almost no eye to detail, just characters wearing the names and acting so far out of character, it’s easier to find points that are related to the original work because they just stand out.

As mentioned, Lost in Translation has reviewed two fan adaptations.  However, the goal with fan production is to show either how well the adaptation works or to show how far a professional adaptation missed the mark.  There is little to gain by picking apart a lacking fan adaptation; there are too many issues and it’s just not fair to a potential budding fan to rip apart a work.  Few fans are deliberately trying to make a bad interpretation; lack of experience is a leading cause.  Thus, Lost in Translation will point out and analyze the fan adaptations that are a good reflection of original works.  It is a bias, but good adaptations do not necessarily mean for pay.  Professional quality can come from all quarters.


Posted on by Steven Savage

You may have noticed some ads in the comment sections – a change from my provider.  I’m working to find the best settings (preferably “off”) for them.

  • Steve


Posted on by Steven Savage

(This column is posted at www.StevenSavage.com, www.SeventhSanctum.com, and Steve’s Tumblr)

(A few thoughts from a continuing work relevant to creatives here).

Creativity cannot be separated from Freedom; it is the source of it and the result of it.  Share it, encourage it, understand it.

Creativity allows people to think in new ways that both liberates and maintains liberty. The creative can dream around problems, finding new solutions when none were apparent.  The creative are harder to constrain by despots, as they have the tools to out-think oppressors.  The hopeful tyrants cannot face down dreams they know nothing about.

The despot worries in his throne room, heart racing.  Someone is out there who can find solutions, communicate in new ways, invent new treasons.  The despot fears you and doesn’t even know your name.

Creativity strengthens the people that treasure it.  Society is stronger for the news ideas the creative people bring.  The imaginative see dead ideas and infuse them with new life, resurrecting the lost things of value. Creative people can see the foundations of society and connect them to their innovations, joining past and present, the new and the renewed.

A single shining inspiration in your mind and old ideas come alive, history is connected, and you can see how ancient thoughts and new dreams come together.  Centuries and aeons link together in new strengths and old wisdom.

Creativity strengthens relations among people allowing them to support each other.  The creative are open to new relations among people because they can dream.  The creative find new connections among people, building alliances that resist tyranny.  The creative discover new ways to understand others and cooperate in ways unforeseen.  A web of connections and associations and alliances makes people all the more resilient.

Those that create are your allies, and a single conversation can create a year’s worth of dreams.  A moment’s pause lets you see everyone new.  You reach out to make new friends easy.  What tyrant doesn’t fear a web of collaborators who can out-dream them?

Creativity should be encouraged and shared among people.  To arm people with creativity is to give them tools to find meaning and protect themselves and others.  To share with other people builds connections and camaraderie, creating alliances that maintain the society. The sharing and encouragement of creativity is a measure of the strength of society.

Once someone lifted you up and said you could create.  Now you can reach out to others, teach them to use their creativity.  Each person so encouraged is an ally and a beacon.  Connection spreads from the outstretched hand.

Creativity is the result of freedom.  Because new thoughts can come to mind, the unthinkable becomes possible.  As old ideas can be seen anew, the foundations of society are renewed.  Because new ideas are encouraged, society can change and evolve.  As people encourage creativity, alliances are built.

– Steve


Posted on by Scott Delahunt

Going back a bit, I mentioned that there are works where the audience remembers not the original but a later version, whether it is an adaptation or a sequel.  Among the works analyzed here at Lost in Translation, Frankenstein, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and Superman: The Movie are perfect examples of the phenomenon.  Adding to this short list, Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior is the best known despite being a sequel to 1979’s Mad Max.  The first movie in the series, Mad Max, was a little-known film from Australia starring a then-unknown Mel Gibson.  The Road Warrior, released in 1981, had a bigger impact on film audiences.  While both movies featured the same actor as the same character in the same setting, The Road Warrior took the action into the post-apocalyptic wastes.

Mad Max, the original movie, showed Max, a Main Force Patrolman, similar to a highway patrol officer, takes on a gang.  The apocalypse hasn’t yet happened, but the signs of it coming were there.  The second movie was as pure an action movie as could be made, with just enough dialogue to establish the situation, told as a story by the young feral boy that rode with Max.  A settlement that grew around a gasoline refinery is under threat from Lord Humungus and needs someone to help them transport their gas and the survivors away before the assault begins.  Max finds the settlement and is pressured into helping.  The plan is to send out a semi rig with a tank trailer to run past Humungus’ gauntlet.  Once the rig leaves the settlement, the chase is on, not letting up until the end of the film.

Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome, released in 1985, uses the same narrative frame as The Road Warrior, a young survivor of the events telling the tale as an adult.  Once again, Max is pulled into a situation beyond his control and his humanity has to reassert itself to help the child survivors of an airplane crash.  Beyond Thunderdome featured Tina Turner as Aunty Entity, co-ruler of Bartertown with designs on becoming the sole ruler, and had hits for her with the movie’s theme song, “We Don’t Need Another Hero (Thunderdome)” and “One of the Living“.

The Road Warrior breaks past the cult classic barrier to be known, by reputation and mood if nothing else, by general audiences.  The Reboot episode “Bad Bob” featured a Mad Max-style game, having the cartoon’s cast reboot into characters right out of the movie.  The Road Warrior has become shorthand whenever anyone needs to refer to a blasted post-apocalyptic wasteland filled with war bands fighting over scraps while the average person is trapped between a rock and a hard place.  Pop culture osmosis may have built up the movie into something bigger than it was originally, leading to a thirty-year gap before the next entry in the Mad Max franchise.

In 2015, Mad Max Fury Road was released.  Once again, Max, now played by Tom Hardy, gets swept into events.  He’s first taken captive by Immortan Joe’s War Boys to be used as a blood bag for a sick warrior named Nux.  When Immortan Joe’s top Imperator, Furiosa, goes rogue on a trip to Gastown, he realizes the she has taken his five “brides” and sends his War Boys to stop her.  Max is strapped on the front of Nux’s car, still connected to him to provide blood.  The chase begins, letting up enough to give the audience a chance to catch its collective breath.  Max slowly regains his humanity again and helps Furiosa and the “brides” escape from Immortan Joe to find Green Place.  Immortan Joe calls in two other warbands, led by the Bullet Farmer and by the People Eater.  There was more dialogue than in The Road Warrior, but the focus is on the action.

Fury Road keeps to several themes found in The Road Warrior, including survival, the fight against would-be tyrants, the need for family, and the dangers of ecological collapse.  The new film also adds the empowerment of women, with Furiosa an equal to Max throughout the film and the catalyst for the action.  Visually, Fury Road is lush, with the desert wastes beautiful and oppressive, as much a character as the cast.  The stunts start with what shown in The Road Warrior and amp up from there.  The Doof Warrior, played by iOTA, and the Doof Wagon bring in music for the action, being Immortan Joe’s flamethrowing guitarist and taiko drummers on a vehicle that’s essentially a high-speed mobile stage.

Helping to keep the feel is the core crew.  George Miller has been involved with the franchise from /Mad Max/, meaning Fury Road is more of a sequel.  Yet, because of the thirty-year gap and the change of actor as the eponymous character, the movie also works as a reboot.  Elements from The Road Warrior, which did set the tone for the franchise, appear.  At the same time, Fury Road is its own movie.  Yet, it keeps the themes, tone, and general feel.  Max is lost, physically and metaphorically, and needs to rediscover what it means to be human.  Fury Road is a perfect entry to the series, demonstrating everything that made The Road Warrior popular while detailing the setting.  The movie is a note-perfect reboot.


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